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State Summaries

REMEDIAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION

Alabama

Students entering the Alabama community college system are required to take a placement exam to measure their college readiness in English, reading, and math. Students who do not meet the placement score must take remedial instruction until readiness for college-level course work is demonstrated on institution-wide, departmental exams. The Alabama Community College System sets minimum cut scores on approved placement exams, but institutions may establish higher standards. Each community college must communicate to local school superintendents in its service area the aggregate placement/assessment exam results for the district's graduates. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Alaska

University of Alaska Board of Regents policy requires universities and community colleges to make available developmental/remedial courses to unprepared students. The institutions set policies and guidelines related to remedial assessments, placement, and courses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Arizona

Each Arizona public university and community college sets its own policies on remedial education assessment, placement, and instructional delivery. There are no state or system policies that govern remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Arkansas

Arkansas state colleges and universities are required to assess students' readiness for college-level instruction. The Higher Education Coordinating Board has selected a common assessment and cut score for course placement. Legislation enacted in 2011 directed the Board to determine criteria beyond tests for remedial education placement and to set minimum criteria and assessment scores for students to enroll simultaneously in remedial and college-level courses. Arkansas has established and continues to expand policies for assessing students in middle and high school to determine if they are on track to be college ready, and to intervene if necessary. The state also has developed comprehensive data reporting requirements for remedial education. Legislation enacted in 2011 required the Department of Higher Education to phase-in a performance-based funding formula for all institutions to improve student success measures. Further, the funding model is intended to address the quality of instruction and student learning, including for remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

California

Remedial education is provided by campuses of the California State University (CSU) system and the California Community College System. CSU's Early Assessment Program (EAP) and the Early Start Program (ESP) are designed to measure high school students' college readiness and intervene with additional support if necessary. Community colleges also participate in the Early Assessment Program. CSU has developed course placement exams for English and mathematics, although individual campuses set cut scores. Legislation enacted in 2012 requires the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges to develop a common assessment system that includes a single exam for course placement (previously, individual campuses selected their own assessments and cut scores). The community college system also must create student assessment profiles; an online practice test for students; and a remedial education advisement tool. The Basic Skills Initiative (BSI) guides many of the programs and practices to serve underprepared community college students. California statute establishes a uniform rate per full-time equivalent students (FTE) for basic skills courses as well as an enhanced rate for noncredit courses in career development and college preparation at community colleges. Community colleges also are required to issue annual reports on student performance, including the success of those in basic skills programs. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Colorado

The Colorado Commission on Higher Education is charged with the following responsibilities regarding remedial education: 1) Adopt and implement statewide remedial policies; 2) annually provide the legislature and state education department with information on the number, type, and costs of remedial education provided; 3) develop funding policies for remediation appropriate to institutional roles and missions; 4) ensure comparability of placement or assessment tests; and 5) ensure each student identified as needing remediation is provided with written notification regarding cost and availability of remedial courses. Colorado accepts three assessments for determining if first-time students are college ready in math, writing, and reading. The state sets minimum cut scores on the exams, and students not meeting the standards must complete their remediation within their first 30 semester credit hours. With a few exceptions, community colleges are the primary providers of remedial education and can use state general fund support for the courses. The annual remediation report must include the following data: the number of students taking remedial courses (including from which school districts they graduated); the costs of providing remedial courses; and whether remedial students complete their graduation requirements. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Connecticut

Connecticut community and technical colleges are the primary providers of remedial education. The Board of Regents for Higher Education has adopted a common systemwide program for assessing student skills and competencies. The Board has a common placement assessment and sets minimum cut scores. The Connecticut State University system requires students who need to demonstrate proficiency to complete the appropriate courses within their first 24 academic credits. Beyond this policy, remedial education decisions are left to the individual institutions. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Delaware

Delaware Tech Community College is the primary provider of remedial education in the state. The institution, which consists of three campuses, sets a range of cut scores for approved assessments, but campus leaders select the actual scores for placement into courses. The institution also has a policy of early identification, intervention, and consequences for students who are at risk of continuing academic failure. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Florida

Florida law allows only community colleges and Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University to offer remedial education courses. State universities may contract with community colleges to provide these services for underprepared students. Florida statute also requires a common course placement test to be taken by degree seeking students. The Postsecondary Education Readiness Test (PERT), a newly developed state-specific assessment, is used for course placement and is aligned with the Florida Postsecondary Readiness Competencies and the Common Core State Standards. Most students will take the PERT but they may also be placed into college-level courses by presenting a qualifying ACT or SAT scores. Students who are placed into developmental courses can take the PERT Diagnostic assessment to identify specific skill deficiencies. Florida produces two annual reports that include remedial education. One report is tied to a policy that requires feedback data to districts on the performance of high school graduates in their first year of postsecondary education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Georgia

Georgia's two postsecondary systems - the university and technical college - offer remedial education, or what is known as learning support (LS). In the university system, students may be placed into LS if a) they score below the minimum admission requirements on the SAT or ACT or b) the institution places them in the program based on failure to meet specific admissions criteria. Students in the university system also must test out of or complete the Regents' Writing and Reading Skills non-credit bearing course as a graduation requirement. Technical college policy requires campuses to assess applied associate degree or certificate-seeking students with the COMPASS or ASSET first, but they can forego these exams with qualifying SAT or ACT scores. Institutions have authority over the delivery of remedial education instruction. A law enacted in 2011 requires both postsecondary systems and the State Board of Education to establish joint college and career readiness competencies in reading, writing, and math. The three agencies also must identify one or more common assessments to determine postsecondary readiness, inform students of their performance no later than the end of 10th grade, and develop transitional courses for 11th and 12th-grade students who fail to meet readiness standards. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Hawaii

The University of Hawaii Community College System is the primary provider of remedial education in the state. Based on a memorandum of agreement, the community college system uses a common assessment to place students into remedial or college-level courses. The system also sets cut score ranges on the exam for placement into various course levels. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Idaho

Idaho's remedial/developmental education policy is fairly general, but requires institutions to establish mechanisms for diagnostic testing in English, reading, math, and natural sciences, and to provide opportunities for corrective measures. The policy also distinguishes between developmental and remedial education. The policy indicates that students with deficiencies should be limited in the number of credits taken in their first semester, and be provided with special support and advisement services tailored to meet their specific needs. Institutions are encouraged to determine the feasibility of developing individualized approaches using technology as an alternative delivery system. The State Board of Education's postsecondary admissions policy indicates cut scores on ACT, SAT and COMPASS exams for placement into college-level courses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Illinois

Illinois policy identifies community colleges as the primary provider of postsecondary remediation courses as part of admissions standards. The state's admissions policy also requires students to complete necessary remedial coursework before pursuing his or her major course of study. Otherwise, institutions develop their own policies and practices related to remedial education. The College and Career Readiness Act of 2007 requires the Illinois Community College Board to create a program to reduce the need for postsecondary remediation through collaborations between high schools and community college campuses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Indiana

The delivery of remedial education in Indiana has shifted away from four-year institutions to the state's two-year system, Ivy Tech Community College. In 2008, the Indiana Commission for Higher Education adopted a set of six strategic initiatives included in "Reaching Higher: Strategic Directions for Higher Education in Indiana," a blueprint for the delivery of higher education in the state.The document outlines several policy goals, including: substantially eliminating all remedial courses at public four-year institutions; establishing a clearly defined floor for remedial instruction offered at community colleges; and restructuring remedial offerings to successfully address students' needs. A Commission policy adopted in 2010 further reinforced the shift of remedial education to community colleges by clarifying the roles of University of Indiana regional campuses and Purdue University. Ivy Tech uses common exams to assesses all first-time students - with some exceptions - to determine placement into college-level or remedial courses. Ivy Tech also has embarked on several initiatives to redesign and improve remedial education as both pilot projects and system-wide on all campuses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Iowa

Local elected boards operate Iowa's 15 community colleges, which have authority over remedial education policies and practices. The Department of Education's Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation supervise the boards, but there are no state or system policies governing remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Kansas

The Kansas Board of Regents coordinates oversight for 19 state community colleges, but the campuses have the authority to establish remedial policies and practices. A Regents' policy defines remedial education and indicates that such courses may not be used to fulfill graduation requirements for any community college degree. Community colleges in Kansas are the primary providers of remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Kentucky

Kentucky statute sets uniform ACT cut scores for college-level and remedial course placement. Four-year institutions use the ACT, and can place students who fall below the cut scores into remediation or into entry-level college courses, as long as they are provided supplemental supports. Community and technical colleges use cut score ranges on COMPASS or the Kentucky Online Testing Program exams for students without ACT scores. High school students who meet ACT or other placement exam benchmarks are eligible for credit-bearing courses at public institutions without the need for remediation. Senate Bill 1, enacted in 2009, required the Kentucky Department of Education, the Council of Postsecondary Education, and the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) to develop a unified strategy for college and career readiness. The legislation outlines accountability provisions that include goals to decrease remedial education rates and increase success of students who require remediation. The KCTCS publishes an annual report that includes data on college course pass rates of remedial education students. The Council on Postsecondary Education collects remedial participation data for its High School Feedback Reports. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Louisiana

Louisiana Board of Regents policy sets the minimum cut scores on assessments for placement into entry-level, college math and English courses. The LA Grad Act of 2010 is primarily an accountability policy but also provides incentives for four-year institutions to eliminate their remedial programs, transferring that responsibility to community colleges. The Remedial Education Commission, created under Act 187 of 2011, was charged with studying remediation at the secondary and postsecondary levels. The final report offered recommendations to improve college readiness, align high school graduation requirements with postsecondary expectations, and increase the success of remedial education students. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Maine

The Maine Community College System and University of Maine System provide remedial education, with the majority of courses delivered at the seven community colleges. Individual institutions have the authority to establish their own remedial policies and practices. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Maryland

Maryland does not have state or system policies that govern remedial education. Under a 1997 agreement, however, all Maryland community colleges - the primary providers of remediation - adopted uniform assessments and cut scores for placing students into college-level and remedial courses. The Maryland Higher Education Commission publishes an annual report, Student Outcome and Achievement Report (SOAR), on recent high school graduates who attend in-state institutions, including data on remedial education placement. This report does not appear to be required by policy. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Massachussetts

As part of the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education's accountability for the quality of education, each institution is required to assess the basic academic skills of entering students. The department policy establishes common testing instruments and cut scores that are used on all campuses for course placement. The placement assessment applies to reading, mathematics, and writing. There are no other state or system policies related to remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Michigan

Michigan's 28 community colleges provide remedial education coursework. The colleges have not established agreements on common assessments or uniform cut off scores and make their own decisions on delivering remedial instruction. Public Act 175 of 1989 (an appropriations bill) established the At-Risk Student Success Program, which provides funding to community colleges to offer remedial services to underprepared students. There are no other state policies related to remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Minnesota

A Board of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities policy requires institutions to assess basic skills of new entering students; develop statewide minimum assessment standards for access to the college-level courses; and to develop remedial courses to bring students to the minimum standards. The Board selects a common assessment to be used throughout the system and requires a regular review of the placement instrument. Public institutions are required to provide annual data to the Department of Education indicating the extent and content of the remedial instruction. The report also must include the results of assessment testing and the academic performance of students who graduated from a Minnesota district before receiving the remedial instruction. The legislature provides grant funding to encourage all higher education institutions to offer high school-to-college developmental transition programs to prepare students for college-level coursework. Grantees must structure courses no longer than the length of a summer semester and accountability measures are tied to the program. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Mississippi

Mississippi Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) policy allows students who do not meet the full admission standards or cut scores on college assessment tests to be admitted under a Full Admission with Academic Deficiencies status, which requires attendance in an intensive summer remedial program. Students who successfully complete the summer program by passing, at minimum, the remedial English and mathematics courses, will receive admission to the fall term with mandatory participation in a year-long academic support program. Students who fail to successfully complete the summer program are counseled to explore other postsecondary opportunities. Community colleges also offer remedial courses, and they have authority to select assessments for course placement and determine how to deliver remedial instruction. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Missouri

As required by statute, Missouri publishes annual feedback reports to high schools on their graduates' performance at postsecondary institutions, including information on remedial course enrollment. Remedial education is the primary responsibility of less-selective four-year institutions and two-year institutions, a practice that has resulted from strategic plans developed by the Coordinating Board for Higher Education. Institutions have authority over assessment, placement, and instructional delivery policies and practices. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Montana

The Montana University System Board of Regents governs all state postsecondary institutions. Four-year institutions may admit underprepared students on a provisional basis, but Regents policy allows remedial coursework to be offered only at the two-year colleges. The policy sets cut scores on the ACT and SAT exams for enrollment in remedial education and indicates equivalent scores on other standardized assessments. The policy also requires the commissioner of higher education to produce annual reports on placement and remediation, using uniform data, including test scores and course enrollments, to evaluate and analyze remedial education in the system. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Nebraska

State statute identifies community colleges as "the primary public postsecondary institutions for foundation courses." Four-year institutions are not prohibited from offering remedial education, but generally offer very few courses. Community colleges set their own assessment cut scores and placement policies, and determine instructional approaches for remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Nevada

The Nevada System of Higher Education's remedial education policies address assessment, placement, cut scores, and reporting requirements for institutions. Board of Regents policy, effective Fall 2010, set uniform cut scores for approved assessments for college-level and remedial course placement. Institutions may choose which test(s) to accept, but no longer have the flexibility to set higher cut scores. Nevada statute requires feedback reports that detail local high schools graduates' remedial needs and associated costs. State policy also allows high school students to enroll in remedial education courses and at a reduced rate. Board of Regents policy has eliminated state funding for remedial education courses at public universities, but allows the institutions to offer the services on a self-supporting basis or to partner with area community and state colleges. Under state statute, students are not permitted to use Millennium Scholarship funds to pay for remedial education classes. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

New Hampshire

The Community College System of New Hampshire provides remedial education through its seven campuses. The institutions establish their own policies and practices for remedial assessment, placement, and instructional delivery. There are no state or system policies related to remedial education. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

New Jersey

The New Jersey Council of County Colleges acts as a coordinating body and legislative advocate for the state's 19 community colleges, where the majority of remedial education occurs. In 2008, college presidents approved the Council's Academic Officers Association recommendations for a common assessment and uniform cut scores for remedial course placement. The Council may submit annual budget requests to the state to support operational costs, which must factor in credit courses as well as remedial and adult basic education courses. The New Jersey Commission on Higher Education is required to develop, establish, and maintain programs of remedial and supplemental education for students who receive educational opportunity assistance at any public or private institution of higher education. Such programs may be administered directly by the New Jersey Educational Opportunity Fund (EOF) or be cooperative ventures undertaken with any or all public and private higher education institutions. The New Jersey Educational Opportunity Fund (EOF) was established to identify, recruit, and provide financial assistance to needy students who lack adequate preparation for college study. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

New Mexico

New Mexico's public four- and two-year institutions select their own assessments and cut scores for placing entering freshmen into appropriate courses and have authority over delivering remedial education. Community colleges are primarily responsible for providing remediation, although there is no policy that dictates this practice. A state statute requires public postsecondary institutions, upon request from a high school or district, to provide reports of their graduates' first-year outcomes. The reports should indicate total credits earned, grade point averages, retention from fall to spring semester of the first year, and enrollment in remedial education courses. There are no other state or system policies that govern remedial education in New Mexico. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

New York

Remedial education is the primary responsibility of the two-year campuses at the City University of New York (CUNY) and the State University of New York (SUNY). The state publishes basic information about remedial education, but does not play a significant role with respect to policies or practices. The CUNY system uses a common set of assessments and cut scores for remedial course placement, but campuses have make decisions regarding instruction. Individual campuses at SUNY determine the assessments used for course placement, as well as cut scores and whether students must enroll in remedial education. Under New York statute, the Arthur O. Eve Opportunity for Higher Education program allows the commissioner of education to contract with public and non-public higher education institutions to provide support services for economically and educationally disadvantaged students. The program also provides funding for remedial, developmental, and summer courses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

North Carolina

The majority of remedial education takes place at the 58 two-year institutions in the North Carolina Community College System. A University of North Carolina system policy encourages its institutions to contract with community colleges to offer remedial instruction their students. Under the policy, community colleges receive additional funding from the state. The community college system uses a common set of three assessments and uniform cut scores for math and English course placement. North Carolina statute created an institutional accountability system for community colleges that centers on the evaluation and reporting of eight performance standards. The standards include passing rates in remedial courses and success rates of remedial students in subsequent college-level courses. Through its partnership with the Developmental Education Initiative (DEI), the community college system has embarked on a redesign of remedial education. The initiative includes the implementation of instructional modules, with plans to adopt diagnostic assessments to support accurate student placements and accelerate their completion of remediation. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

North Dakota

The North Dakota University System governs the state's four-year institutions and community colleges, and campuses have the flexibility to set remedial instructional policies. A State Board of Higher Education policy, effective 2012, will require the 11 state institutions to assess incoming students on the ACT or COMPASS exams. The policy also sets minimum cut scores for course placement, but campuses can set higher standards. Institutions may use alternative assessments with the approval of the system chancellor. Students scoring below the cut scores must complete remedial classes before enrolling in college-level coursework. Legislation enacted in 2010 required a study to examine the students who require remediation, efforts and best practices to reduce remedial needs, and the alignment of K-12 education standards with higher education admissions standards. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Ohio

The Ohio Board of Regents bases its assessment and placement policy on a set of College Readiness Expectations. The Regents have recommended ACT and COMPASS cut scores for English and algebra, but institutions may use other standardized exams or a homegrown assessment. Institutions are encouraged to use cut score "decision zones" or "placement ranges" and to consider other measures beyond assessment results. The Board of Regents has expanded the state's performance funding system to reward institutions that accelerate students' progress and that contribute to the completion of remedial courses. Beginning in 2014-15, Ohio statute will place restrictions on the operating subsidies that state universities can receive to provide remedial services. Ohio produces two reports that include remedial education data. One includes student remedial participation data at institutions. Another report, which has been required by statute that appears to expire in Fall 2012, tracks recent high school graduates' enrollment in college remediation and their completion of college-preparation curriculum. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Oklahoma

Oklahoma sets a common ACT cut score for course placement, but institutions select secondary exams and passing standards to further determine students' remedial needs. Students testing below minimal scores must enroll in and successfully complete remedial courses within their first 24 college-level credits. A Regents for Higher Education policy establishes community colleges as the main providers of remedial education since other institutions must support courses through student fees. Oklahoma produces a remedial education report that includes detailed information on participation rates, whether remedial students completed the core high school curriculum, and data on individual high school graduates? need for remediation. Oklahoma's Academic Performance Index (API) measures K-12 school performance and reports college remediation rates for recent high school graduates. Remediation rates contribute 10percent to the Academic Excellence component of the API. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Oregon

Community colleges are the primary providers of remedial coursework in Oregon, but the institutions set their own policies related to assessment, placement, and instructional delivery. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Pennsylvania

No state- or systemwide policies govern remedial education for Pennsylvania?s four- or two-year institutions. Decisions regarding remedial assessment, placement, and delivery are made by individual campuses. Under state statute, remedial courses generate the same level of state support for colleges as other credit courses, but are not eligible for stipend reimbursement by the state. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Rhode Island

Rhode Island's public four-year institutions set their assessment, placement, and delivery policies for remedial education. The Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) uses a common assessment and cut score ranges to place students in remedial or college-level courses at the six campuses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

South Carolina

State legislation directs the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (SCCHE) to develop provisions, procedures, and requirements for remedial programs. The SCCHE has adopted policies to mandate placement tests to determine entry skills of students and a phased-in process to eliminate or limit remedial education at four-year colleges, shifting such courses to the two-year institutions. Technical colleges and two-year campuses have developed standard course systems for remedial education using common assessments, but institutions can set cut scores for placement. Students at two-year institutions are limited to a total of 30 credit hours of remedial coursework. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

South Dakota

South Dakota Board of Regents policies require that all entering freshmen show evidence of their level of academic preparation prior to enrollment in their initial math and English courses. All students seeking an associate or baccalaureate degree must provide qualifying ACT scores or take the placement exams approved by the Board. Policy revisions in 2012 expanded the list of approved assessments and allowed institutions to consider other measures, such as high school GPA, for course placement decisions. Students with deficits are allowed to register for the "pre-general" (remedial) education coursework they need to progress through the required general education math and English courses. Students placed in remediation must enroll in and complete the courses within their first 30 credit hours. If students do not complete the courses within the first 42 credits, then they may enroll only in the remedial courses and their status is changed to non-degree seeking. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Tennessee

Under the Complete College Tennessee Act of 2010, four-year institutions are prevented from offering remedial education courses, but may coordinate efforts with two-year institutions governed by the Board of Regents to provide such services. Under Tennessee Board of Regents policy, institutions use a common cut score on the ACT to identify students in need of further diagnostic assessment. Institutions can place students in appropriate remedial support based on the results of the secondary exam. The Tennessee Board of Regents Developmental Studies Redesign Initiative resulted in a new policy for the delivering remedial education. The initiative will develop core student competencies and provide guidelines for effective remedial instruction. The policy will enable exit points out of remediation based requirement of students' program of study and allow them to complete remediation in one semester. The policy also requires campuses to submit plans for and be evaluated against increasing the success of remedial students. The Tennessee Higher Education Commission produces an annual postsecondary report, which is required by statute. The report must include the number and percentage of students enrolled in remedial courses and the number of students exiting remedial courses and successfully completing entry-level college courses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Texas

As part of the Texas Success Initiative (TSI), state statute identifies the approved standardized assessments and a state-developed exam for placement into remedial education and indicates minimum cut scores. Under legislation enacted in 2011, institutions will no longer be able to set higher cut scores on the assessments. The 2011 legislation also required remedial courses to be based on research and best practices and listed the components of the coursework. Another 2011 bill directed the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to develop a statewide plan for remedial education that assigns the primary delivery of such services to public community, state, and technical colleges. Texas statute has required summer bridge programs for high school students who are not college-ready and incentives for institutions to implement research-based remedial education initiatives. The THECB publishes annual reports on several accountability measures, including data related to remedial education participation and student success. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Utah

Utah State Board of Regents policy specifies that remedial education is part of the mission of the state's community and technical colleges and state colleges and universities. These institutions receive regular state support for remedial programs. Any remedial classes taught at the research and graduate institutions must be self supporting. Institutions set their own remedial policies related to assessment, placement, and instructional delivery. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Vermont

All postsecondary institutions in Vermont provide remedial education to some extent, but there are no policies governing the assessment, placement, or instructional delivery practices. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Virginia

The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) delivers the majority of remedial education, and language in state legislative budgets has indicated that four-year institutions should make arrangements with two-year campuses to provide such services. The community college system is in the process of redesigning remedial education based on recommendations from the Developmental Education Task Force and involvement in national remedial education initiatives. The plans include significant changes to remedial practices, including assessments, the curriculum, and instructional delivery. Based on the task force's recommendations, the VCCS publishes an annual report on remedial education that includes several data points, as well as overall goals and success measures. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Washington

All postsecondary institutions in Washington offer remedial education services, but the 34 community and technical colleges are the primary providers. Washington statute requires all public postsecondary institutions to publish annual reports on the number of state high school graduates who enroll in remedial courses. The four-year institutions set their own remedial policies related to assessment, placement, and instructional delivery. The State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) has selected a common assessment for course placement, but individual institutions set the cut scores. The SBCTC has implemented two programs related to remedial education and student success. The Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) program allows low-skilled, low-income students to receive simultaneous instruction in career-specific fields and adult basic education (ABE) or English as a Second Language (ESL). The Student Achievement Initiative is an accountability system that provides funding incentives for campuses to improve student success at various momentum points - including passing remedial courses - and program or degree completion rates. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Washington D.C.

In 2009, the Board of Trustees for the University of the District of Columbia (UDC) approved the creation of a new University System, which includes UDC and the Community College of the District of Columbia (CCDC). The community college system is the primary provider of remedial education and is participating in the national Achieving the Dream initiative to improve student success. The Community College of the District of Columbia has selected a common assessment and cut scores for course placement, including remedial classes, for new students. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

West Virginia

West Virginia code requires the boards of the four- and two-year postsecondary systems to develop a uniform standard to determine which students should be placed in remedial courses. Board policies for both systems specify the assessments and cut scores for course placement. Students not meeting the cut score on any one of the assessments must enroll in and successfully complete a remedial program before taking credit-bearing courses in the relevant subjects. As part of the requirements for developing master plans for higher education, the four- and two-year systems must track and jointly report progress toward state goals and related data, including enrollment in and completion of remedial courses and remedial student success in subsequent college-level courses. The community college system also has developed a set of performance indicators that include the number and percentage of underprepared students completing remedial and the next college-level courses, and the number and percentage of remedial students receiving a certificate or associate degree within six years. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Wisconsin

New students admitted to University of Wisconsin two- or four-year campuses are required to successfully complete remedial courses prior to completion of 30 credits if their English or math placement or proficiency test scores indicate a low probability for success in college-level courses. The University of Wisconsin system policy mandates assessment and placement for entering freshmen but grants institutions flexibility in determining which assessments to use and how to place students. Initial screening for minimum college-level competencies, however, should include students? scores on the ACT and any other additional performance criteria used by institutions. The policy requires an annual report with data from institutions on the number of new students identified as needing and successfully completing remedial courses. The system policy also directs the University of Wisconsin System to cooperate with the Department of Public Instruction in developing a plan for assessing English and math skills of high school students. Students whose scores suggest they are unlikely to place into college-level courses will be encouraged to take courses designed to improve their competencies and lessen the possibility of needing college remedial courses. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)

Wyoming

Wyoming's seven community colleges provide the majority of remedial education in the state, but there are no formal policies governing the programs. The University of Wyoming has on ongoing relationship with Laramie County Community College to provide remedial coursework for students failing to demonstrate college-level readiness. The university also has established the Synergy Program for students who are admitted but need additional academic support based on high school GPA, ACT scores, and prerequisite course fulfillment. (Prepared by Mary Fulton, Education Commission of the States, 2012)