State Summaries



Ala. Code 16-5-8, passed in 1994, expanded the state's Computerized Advisement System (CAS) and created the Articulation and General Studies Committee (AGSC). The computerized advisement system - now known as the Statewide Transfer and Articulation System (STARS) ( - features comprehensive undergraduate program and course information for all public two- and four-year institutions in the state. STARS also offers public two-year students a "Transfer Guide/Agreement" to help guide them through their first two years of coursework and prevent loss of credit hours upon transfer. The AGSC has approved a statewide general studies core curriculum, and a statewide articulation agreement requires that all applicable credits transferred from a two-year institution fulfill requirements at a four-year institution, provided the institutions are accredited by the Southern Association's Commission on Colleges. All public postsecondary institutions in the state are required to participate in AGSC/STARS. (Last Updated 2011)


The Board of Regents for the University of Alaska (UA) system, which oversees all public two- and four-year colleges and universities in the state, has established a common core of general education coursework to facilitate transfer between and among UA institutions. A student who completes the general education requirements at one campus and transfers to another university or community college campus will be considered to have completed the general education requirements at all campuses. The Board also instructs UA institutions to publish information on articulation and course transfer in their catalogs in order to make it readily available to advisers and students. (Last Updated 2011)


Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 15-1824 directs two- and four-year institutions to cooperate in operating a statewide articulation and transfer system in an effort to facilitate the transfer of community college students to Arizona public universities without a loss of credit toward a baccalaureate degree and to ensure that the postsecondary education needs of students statewide are met without unnecessary duplication of programs. The statute further calls on the Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) and the community college districts to submit an annual report on their progress to the joint legislative budget committee. SB 1186 signed into law during the 2010 legislative session, amends Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 15-1824 by adding this language: "The community college districts and the universities under the jurisdiction of the Arizona Board of Regents shall develop and implement a shared numbering system which identifies courses that transfer from community colleges to Arizona public universities toward a baccalaureate degree." As a result, the Shared Unique Number (SUN) System was launched in June 2011 ( In 2009, the Joint Conference Committee of the Community Colleges and Universities was replaced by the Joint Council of Presidents (JCP), an organization of the chancellors and presidents of the three public universities and 10 community colleges districts in the state. Under the oversight of the JCP, Arizona's Academic Programs Articulation Steering Committee (APASC) created the Arizona Consortium for Transfer and Alignment (ACTA) in 2010. ACTA seeks to align the postsecondary and K-12 systems in the state with input from school superintendents and the chief academic officer of each community college district or university. Arizona also maintains the Arizona State System for Information on Student Transfer (ASSIST) (, a database containing enrollment and degree information on students attending Arizona's public universities and community college districts. Another website, ( provides transfer information to community college and university students, advisors, faculty, and members of committees and task forces dedicated to improving articulation and transfer in the state. (Last Updated 2011)


Numerous pieces of legislation passed in Arkansas deal with the issue of transfer and articulation. The Roger Phillips Transfer Act, passed in 2009, allows students who complete an A.A. or A.S. degree to transfer those courses and be admitted as a junior to any public four-year institution in the state. State law also requires the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board (AHECB) to create comprehensive, statewide transfer policies with a minimum general education core curriculum that is fully transferable among public postsecondary institutions in the state. Legislation also directs the AHECB to maintain the Arkansas Course Transfer System (ACTS), an electronically based student guide that provides up-to-date course information and facilitates transfer and articulation between state institutions. State law similarly requires the Arkansas Department of Higher Education to provide institutional performance data - including transfer rates - to the legislature through the Arkansas Higher Education Performance Reporting System. The state's minimum general education core requirements in A.A., A.S., or B.A. programs are 35 semester hours distributed across English composition, speech communication, math, science, humanities, and social sciences. Arkansas also recently passed legislation requiring public four-year institutions to develop transfer guidelines and an advising tool that outlines courses which will prepare two-year students for entry into a baccalaureate program. (Last Updated 2011)


The California Academic Partnership Program was established by the General Assembly in 1984 for the purpose of developing cooperative efforts among the state's three postsecondary systems - the University of California (UC), California State University (CSU) and the California Community Colleges (CCC). Legislation passed in 1985 created the Articulation System Stimulating Interinstitutional Transfer Project (more commonly referred to as Project Assist), a computerized transfer planning system designed to distribute campus information and articulation agreements to students. The California Articulation Numbering (CAN), which assigns common numbers to comparable courses across systems and Community College Transfer Centers, which provide advising and counseling to community college students, were also established by statute in the 1980s. Other statewide initiatives in California include the Intersegmental General Education Transfer Curriculum (IGETC), which establishes a general education curriculum student may use to fulfill lower-division general education requirements for either the CSU or UC while enrolled at the community college, and the Intersegmental Major Preparation Articulation Curriculum (IMPAC), an initiative for faculty collaboration in developing a common understanding of major preparation requirements across the three systems. Legislation amended in 2010 directs the three state postsecondary systems to develop, maintain, and disseminate a common core curriculum in general education courses for the purposes of transfer. The new law requires that a student who has successfully completed the transfer core curriculum is deemed to have completed all lower-division general education requirements for the University of California and the California State University. (Last Updated 2011)


Colorado's statewide transfer policy is designed to ensure access to undergraduate degree programs and facilitate completion of degree requirements. The 60 + 60 transfer plan allows community college students who complete an Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degree to transfer 60 credit hours to a four-year institution. Transfer students should then be able to complete a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree within another 60 credit hours. Similarly, the gtPATHWAYS program allows easy transfer between and among two and four-year schools and applies to all Colorado public institutions of higher education. Students can transfer up to 31 credits of previously and successfully (C- or better) completed general education coursework in 20 subject areas. Transfer guides for four-year institutions in the state are available on the Colorado Department of Higher Education's website. Statewide articulation agreements for specific majors - including engineering, business, economics, history, math, Spanish, psychology (both BA and BS), early childhood, and elementary education - have also been developed in Colorado. The General Education Council (GE) is an advisory council for all transfer and articulation issues in the state. Composed of educational leaders who represent academic vice presidents and faculty, in addition to recommending the content and competency criteria for the gtPATHWAYS courses it also is involved in negotiating statewide articulation agreements. (Last Updated 2011)


Transfer agreements in Connecticut exist at the system level between the Community-Technical College (CTC) System and the Connecticut State University (CSU) System as well as between the CTC System and the University of Connecticut (UConn). The Transfer Compact Agreement between the CSU System and the Connecticut Community College System is for students who identify early in their career at a two-year institution that they wish to earn a bachelor's degree at one of the four CSU campuses after completing an associate's degree. Students participating in this program receive guaranteed admission into the 4-year university, acceptance of 60 credits of which a minimum of 31 will count toward general education requirements, and joint academic advising. The Guaranteed Admission Program (GAP) is for students who earn a 3.0 and complete an associate's degree in a Liberal Arts transfer program at one of Connecticut's community colleges and plan to transfer to UConn. Students must transfer into a major offered by UConn's College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, the College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, or the School of Business. For both of these agreements, transfer is envisioned as a movement from the two-year institution to the four-year institution, not from the four-year institution to the two-year institution. (Last Updated 2011)


Delaware does not have a statewide approach to articulation and transfer, but rather institutional articulation agreements for specific academic programs. A web-based degree tool, Connected Degree (, allows Delaware Community and Technical College students to track how their associate's degree credits would apply towards a bachelor's degree at participating four-year institutions. There is also an In-State Matrix Project ( that lists transferable courses and their equivalents (if any) at the public institutions. The final decision on whether or not to accept credits, however, lies with the receiving institutions. A P-20 Council was established through legislation in 2005 to coordinate educational efforts and foster partnerships among "groups concerned with public education." (Last Updated 2011)


Florida has a long history of enacting and expanding upon policies related to articulation and transfer. Starting in 1975, the state has continually sought to expedite the degree completion of transfer students and improve college access for everyone. A statewide articulation agreement encourages local institutions and their governing boards to establish articulation agreements and relationships that promote cooperation and requires the State Board of Education and the Board of Governors to facilitate a seamless transfer of student credit across the state's postsecondary institutions. A statewide common course numbering system also facilitates transfer by giving courses with the same academic content the same prefix number and designating them as equivalent courses which are guaranteed to transfer to every participating institution, which includes all but one public institution in the state. In addition, a statewide computer advising system - the Florida Center for Advising and Academic Support ( - allows students to compare their transcripts to the requirements of degree programs at schools to which they might transfer. The site also allows students to view existing transfer agreements, the "Common Prerequisite Manual" detailing common courses for degree programs, and transfer program admissions information. A 14-member appointed state Articulation Coordinating Committee is charged with developing guidelines for inter-institutional articulation agreements, examining statewide articulation data, and maintaining student transcript records. (Last Updated 2011)


Georgia has a number of policies in place to facilitate transfer and articulation throughout the state. A core curriculum that covers six broad academic areas developed by the University System of Georgia (USG) Board of Regents ensures that core courses completed at one USG institution are fully transferable to another USG institution. Board policy also states that all A.A. and A.S. degrees are considered "transfer degrees leading to the baccalaureate degree." Applications for admission from students who wish to transfer with non-transfer degrees are evaluated individually by the receiving institution. Georgia is also recognized for its early efforts to create an aligned P-16 education system in the state. (Last Updated 2011)


There is no current legislation specific to articulation and transfer in Hawaii. The University Of Hawaii (UH) Board of Regents, however, implemented policies related to articulation and transfer in 1994 and updated them in 2006. Board policy 5-12 instructs all UH campuses to offer a core of general education courses "based on a philosophy and rationale that are clearly stated and appropriate for each credential or cluster of credentials offered." Executive policy (E5.209) states that students who complete an Associate of Arts (AA) degree from a UH community college are admissible to any baccalaureate-granting UH campus and general education core requirements are met. In 2009 automatic admission to a UH baccalaureate-granting campus for students completing an associate of arts degree was instituted. Beginning in fall 2011 students who complete general education core requirements (without completing the associate of arts degree) at one University of Hawaii campus and then transfers to another UH campus will have met the general education core requirements at the receiving campus. (Last Updated 2011)


Several policies related to articulation and transfer were developed by the Idaho State Board of Education (SBOE), and have been in place since the 1980s. Many of these policies have been updated to reflect the addition of the state's newest community college, the College of Western Idaho, in 2007. Board policy allows a student with 14 or more semester hours of transferable baccalaureate-level credits from one college or university and a cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher to be admitted to another four-year institution. SBOE also instructs community colleges in the state to work cooperatively with college and universities to ensure that transfer students have remedied any "high school deficiencies which may have prevented them from entering four-year institutions directly following graduation from high school." Additionally, SBOE's Articulation and Associate Degree Policy, enacted in 2008, states that students who complete requirements for an A.A. or an A.S. degree at an accredited institution in the state will be granted junior standing upon transfer to a four-year public institution in Idaho and will not be required to complete any additional lower-division general education core courses. (Last Updated 2011)


Illinois has focused on improving articulation and transfer in the state since the late 1980s. The Illinois Community College Board (ICCB) developed A.A. and A.S. curricula to be compatible with the general education curricula at the state's four-year institutions. In 1990, the Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) recommended that the faculties of two- and four-year institutions meet on a regular basis to strengthen articulation and transfer between the two sectors. This collaboration between the Transfer Coordinators of Illinois Colleges and Universities (TCICU) and the ICCB and IBHE led to the creation of the Illinois Articulation Initiative (IAI) in 1993. Although voluntary, the initiative allows for improved transfer among all 60 public postsecondary institutions, including 12 universities, 48 community colleges, and 47 private institutions in Illinois. The following year, the state developed a General Education Core Curriculum (GECC) which facilitates transfer between participating colleges and universities provided students complete the appropriate coursework. Each major recommendation included in the core curriculum explicitly encourages community college students to compete an AA or AS degree prior to transfer. The GECC was revised in 2001. Illinois also maintains the "" website for students seeking assistance and information regarding transfer between postsecondary institutions. In addition to IAI guidance, the site offers a course planning tool and "Articulation Advocate" page featuring news and information of interest to Transfer Coordinators throughout the state. When the Public Community College Act was reauthorized in 2005, the Illinois General Assembly included language allowing for the development of articulation policies between the ICCB and four-year institutions in the state. (Last Updated 2011)


In 2000, the Indiana Commission for Higher Education (ICHE) formed the Statewide Transfer and Articulation Committee (STAC), which later established guidelines for transfer in the state in 2002. Two- and four-year institutions in the state are considered equal partners and share responsibility for formulating articulation agreements and facilitating student transfer between institutions. In 2003, legislation was passed requiring the STAC to develop statewide transfer of credits for core courses and the alignment of A.A. and A.S. requirements with baccalaureate degree programs. The legislation further directed the STAC to publish a master list of course transfer requirements and articulation agreements. Legislation passed in 2007 mandated the STAC to create the Core Transfer Library, which included a minimum of 70 courses that would transfer among all public institutions. As of 2009, the number of courses eligible for transfer increased to 89. (Last Updated 2011)


Articulation and transfer agreements in Iowa are for the most part voluntary. The Liaison Advisory Committee on Transfer Students (LACTS), originally established in 1972, created eight statewide transfer agreements, the most notable of which is the Associate of Arts Articulation Agreement between the state's 15 community colleges and the three "Regent Universities" - the University of Iowa, Iowa State University, and the University of Northern Iowa. According to the agreement, community college students who fulfill all A.A. degree requirements will be granted junior-level status upon transfer to the four-year institutions. Other areas of agreement between the community colleges and the public universities include career and technical credits, common grading definitions, the College Level Examination Program, military credits, and electronic-based technologies. There are currently over 200 agreements in place between community colleges and the public universities in Iowa. The state maintains a "" website which allows students to access information related to these statewide agreements and navigate the transfer process as outlined by the LACTS and the Iowa Board of Regents. Furthermore, legislation passed in 2003 established Career Academies designed to create seamless career and technical education programs between high schools and community colleges in the state. (Last Updated 2011)


The Kansas Board of Regents' Transfer and Articulation Policy, adopted in 1999, directs community colleges and vocational-technical schools in the state to enter into articulation agreements with most four-year public institutions and allow for "the transferability of substantially equivalent courses of study and programs." Students who transfer to a public four-year institution with an A.A. or an A.S. degree will be given junior standing. Board policy also instructs postsecondary institutions in the state to publicize their transfer policies. A minimum of 45 credit hours must be distributed across four academic areas: basic skills - including English, public speaking, and math; humanities; social and behavioral science; and natural and physical science. (Last Updated 2011)


The Kentucky Postsecondary Improvement Act, enacted in 1997, seeks to a create a seamless, integrated system of postsecondary education, including easy transfer from two-year to four-year institutions in the state. This act also created the state's Council on Postsecondary Education (CPE), which provides direction to institutions regarding articulation and transfer agreements and policies in the state. The passage of HB 160 in the 2010 legislative session, codified as KRS 164.2951, supports and enhances Kentucky's strategies for ensuring students' successful transfer from the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) to Kentucky's four-year colleges and universities. The Kentucky Transfer Action Plan is the statewide implementation plan for this piece of legislation. A part of this plan includes revisions to the Kentucky General Education Transfer Policy and Implementation Guidelines that includes acceptance of individual courses as well as blocks of general education courses. Kentucky's general education core consists of a minimum of 30 credits that must be attained through demonstration of student learning outcomes in five academic areas, including communication, humanities, quantitative reasoning, natural sciences, and social and behavioral sciences. The website features a transfer handbook which provides information to students about policies and procedures related to transfer, as well as information on a new course equivalency system, a list of institutional transfer contacts, a glossary of terms, and information on transfer scholarships and other resources. Also, KCTCS students who have earned an associate's degree in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, or selected teacher education programs are eligible for a need-based scholarship when they continue in those specific academic programs after transferring to a four-year institution. (Last Updated 2011)


Legislation grants the Louisiana Board of Regents both authority and directive to provide for articulation in the state. More recent articulation and transfer developments are guided by La. Rev. Stat. 17:3161-3169, passed in 2009 to create a comprehensive system of articulation and transfer of credit between public postsecondary institutions. The legislation mandated the formation of the Statewide Articulation and Transfer Council and the creation of the Louisiana Transfer Associate Degree, a 60-hour degree designed to maximize the transfer process, meet the needs of students who enroll at a two-year college with the intent to work toward a baccalaureate, and develop a universal transfer program for which the coursework completed in pursuit of the degree will be accepted by all public universities in the state. The degree guarantees block transfer of General Education course requirements. In addition to the Louisiana Transfer degree, the Board of Regents manages and publishes annual updates to a Statewide General Education Course Articulation Matrix and a computer-based query application for courses on the matrix that is available to all, as required by La. Rev. Stat. Ann. 17:3129.1, passed in 1998 and later revised. Outside of the statewide efforts, institutions are encouraged to further develop articulation agreements and avenues for collaboration - efforts which are recognized and rewarded through La. Rev. Stat. 17:3139, "the GRAD Act," passed in 2010. (Last Updated 2011)


There are currently no statewide policies on transfer and articulation in Maine. Instead, policies and agreements in the state are at the institutional level. In 1985, the Maine State Legislature directed the University of Maine System (UMS) to establish a uniform course numbering and course description system to facilitate the transfer of credits for equivalent courses between the various units of the system. Trustee policy of the UMS ensures that when a student is accepted for transfer, all undergraduate degree credits successfully completed at any institution in the system will be transferable to any other institution but will not be automatically applied to the specific academic degree program to which the student has transferred. More recently, in 2005 the UMS partnered with the Maine Community College System (MCCS) to create a transfer program known as "Advantage U." The program allows students who receive an A. A. degree in liberal studies at one of Maine's seven community colleges to transfer credits and receive guaranteed admission to any university in the UMS. The program maintains an Advantage U website ( featuring specific requirements and other information of use to students seeking to transfer in the state. Maine also maintains a website which lists all the articulation agreements in the state ( (Last Updated 2011)


In 1998, Md. Education Code Ann. 11-207 established procedures for the transfer of students between public institutions and standards for articulation agreements in the state. The Maryland Higher Education Commission (MHEC) also enacted general education and transfer requirements in 1995. Under the MHEC policy, transfer students with associate's degrees or 56 credit hours in a recommended transfer program are guaranteed admission to a four-year public institution if satisfy admission requirements and have a minimum 2.0 grade point average. Students with less than 56 semester hours are eligible to transfer, but not guaranteed admission, if they satisfy the admission requirements of the receiving institution and also maintain 2.0 grade point average. General education programs taken at one public college or university will transfer to another without the need for a course to course match. Additionally, faculty at Maryland public institutions designed statewide "two plus two" articulation agreements in teacher education and engineering, utilizing a learning outcomes-based approach in the design of lower-division curricula. (Last Updated 2011)


In June 2008, the Massachusetts Board of Higher Education accepted the Final Report from the Commonwealth Transfer Advisory Group which included a new statewide transfer policy: MassTransfer ( MassTransfer seeks to provide a broad population of students with straightforward and understandable options toward the completion of associate and baccalaureate degrees, clearing the way for student access and student success in Massachusetts' public higher education system. MassTransfer has two main purposes: 1) to provide community college students who complete approved associate degrees under MassTransfer with the benefits of the full transfer and applicability of credit, guaranteed admission, and a tuition discount (each benefit based on the student's final grade point average) to linked baccalaureate programs; and 2) to provide any student in the Massachusetts public higher education system the intermediate goal of completing a portable transfer block ("MassTransfer Block") which satisfies general education/distribution/core requirements across institutions (with the receiving institution able to add no more than six additional credits/two courses). MassTransfer integrates and replaces the Commonwealth Transfer Compact, Joint Admissions, and the Tuition Advantage Program as of fall 2009. Community college students who matriculated prior to fall 2009 and who choose to continue in the Commonwealth Transfer Compact and/or Joint Admissions Program will be required to complete their associate degrees by August 2013 and must matriculate at a Massachusetts state college or University of Massachusetts campus by fall 2014. (Last Updated 2011)


Currently, there is not a statewide approach to articulation and transfer in Michigan. In 2004, Lieutenant Governor John Cherry's Commission on Higher Education and Economic Growth developed a plan that included a recommendation to improve the transfer process through the awarding of dual degrees, but this has yet to be implemented. While still a work in progress, one resource available to students is the Michigan Transfer Network (, an online database that allows students attending participating institutions to evaluate whether completed courses are transferable to other participating institutions. Created by the Michigan Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (MACRAO), the database includes course equivalency information from most, but not yet all, of the state's public and private two- and four-year institutions. MACRAO has also developed a transfer agreement, which consists of 30 credit hours of distributed general education courses, which may be taken at a Michigan community college for transfer to a four-year institution. Similar to the transfer database, not all institutions in the state currently participate. (Last Updated 2011)


Minn. Stat. 135A.08 passed in 1985, and recently updated in 2010, requires the regents of the University of Minnesota and the trustees of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) to develop and maintain course equivalency guides to ease and encourage student transfer between state postsecondary institutions and develop and maintain a common numbering convention . In addition to legislation, MnSCU has its own policies related to undergraduate course credit transfer, originally passed in 1998 and updated in 2007. Under MnSCU policy 3.21, postsecondary institutions determine exactly what credits can be transferred once students submit an official transcript. Once the student is admitted, the receiving college or university then determines how the course credits will apply to program and graduation requirements. The policy further calls for each Minnesota state college or university to implement a published policy "to address transfer of course credit consistent with system requirements." Another MnSCU policy, 3.37, details a Minnesota Transfer Curriculum (MnTC) available on the Minnesota website ( Designed by faculty, the MnTC is comprised of general education courses reflecting competencies adopted by the public higher education entities in Minnesota. It is to be implemented by all institutions in the MnSCU system, in accordance with system policy, for academic certificates, diplomas, and degrees. All institutions in the system must accept the MnTC, publish its requirements and policies, allow for student appeals, and have an implementation procedure developed by the chancellor. Minnesota was also the first state in the nation to develop policies establishing a comprehensive postsecondary enrollment system for secondary students which encourages 11th and 12th graders to enroll full- or part-time in postsecondary courses, offered either at the high school or on the college campus for either secondary and/or postsecondary credit. (Last Updated 2011)


In 1991, the Board of Trustees of the Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) along with the Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges (SBCJC) voluntarily created a statewide articulation agreement, which is essentially a regularly updated list of transferable courses from community and junior colleges to all IHL institutions. The IHL's director of P-20 initiatives relations oversees the agreement, including coordination of activities, communication with stakeholders, and dissemination of updated information related to transfer in the state. Course equivalencies are defined by a Statewide Articulation Sub-committee on an annual basis and are communicated through the websites of the IHL, the SBCJC, and the universities and community colleges. Transfer advisors at the state's universities and community colleges are updated on any relevant changes to the agreement. The SBJC has also established a common course numbering system among Mississippi's 15 public community college districts to better facilitate transfer to four-year institutions. Additionally, in 2010 the IHL Board adopted a system-wide policy whereby each IHL university will accept for transfer the associate of arts degree from each Mississippi community/junior college. (Last Updated 2011)


In 1997 the Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education (MBCHE), the State Board of Education. And the University of Missouri Board of Curators came together to create a PreK-16 Coalition charged with creating a seamless education system and raising expectations and performance levels of all students from kindergarten through the baccalaureate degree. The state board of Education is currently considering changes to highschool graduation requirements that will increase the number of core units in each core subject. As a result, high scholl graduation requirements will be more slighned with college preparation. Like many other states, Missouri state statutes encourage public high schools, in cooperation with public community colleges and four-year colleges and universities, to offer academic and vocational postsecondary course options to high school students for both secondary and college credit. The MCBHE has established a statewide general education policy which requires state colleges and universities to design and offer a general education program that includes a minimum of 42 semester hours of credit that meet specified academic skills and knowledge areas. While institutions have flexibility in deigning the stucture and content of specific courses, all programs are required to be aligned with statewide goals and illustrative competencies. Institutions may require transfer students to complete general education and other institutional requirements in addition to the 42 semester-hour block of credit only when these additional requirements are also required of native students. While the Associate of Arts is designed as the statewide general studies transfer degree, MCBHE policy encourages both two-year and four-year institutions to develop voluntary supplemental articulation agreements for the Associate of Science and the Associate of Applied Science degrees. (FY 2003)


Because the Montana Board of Regents is given express constitutional authority to manage the state's system of higher education, no legislative mandates exist that govern articulation and transfer in the state. Instead, several policies enacted by the Montana Board of Regents (BOR) have addressed the issue. One foundational policy, Transfer of Credits, was originally written in 1976 and most recently updated in 2005. The policy assures students that college-level credits earned from any regionally accredited institution will count toward graduation requirements at the receiving Montana institution. An array of related policies was developed to respond to a 2004 legislative performance audit of transferability in the Montana University System (MUS), including policies created in 2005 that mandate a standard system of controls and procedures to be followed throughout the system. In 2007, the MUS Transferability Initiative was launched in conjunction with the Equivalent Course Identification and Numbering system which mandates that every undergraduate class offered at any MUS campus be reviewed to determine whether it is equivalent to any other class offered in the state - and that all such equivalencies will be assigned the same prefix, number, and title. New system-level positions were authorized and funded under this initiative - a Transferability Director and a database specialist - and as of 2011, more than 8600 courses have been reviewed and re-labeled under this policy; the fields of study still remaining to be reviewed comprise another 2,000-3,000 courses. Web access to these equivalencies is publicly available at Finally, under the MUS Transferable Core, students who complete a campus' general education core, an A.A. or A.S., or the MUS 30-credit shared transferable core, are assured the courses will transfer as a block to a receiving campus, and will substitute for the receiving campus' lower division core. Transfer relationships with entities external to the MUS have been also developed since 2007: all seven tribal colleges in Montana have signed articulation agreements with the MUS to ensure that their students can take advantage of the policies set for MUS students and campuses. (Last Updated 2011)


Under the Nebraska Transfer Initiative, graduates of two-year A.A. and A.S. degree programs are considered to have met the lower-division general education requirements for similar programs at all public postsecondary schools in Nebraska. Originally created by Nebraska's six community colleges in 1995 and later signed by all public and all but one of the private institutions in the state, the initiative consists of a 34 credit common core curriculum in which students must maintain a "C" average to be eligible for transfer. Transfer institutions accept all core courses for direct application to the student's degree or major. Neb. Rev. Stat. 85-963 also directs the community colleges to work in cooperation with the University of Nebraska and the state colleges for the articulation of general academic transfer programs. However, nothing in statute or the transfer initiative requires institutions to accept the courses. (Last Updated 2011)


Nev. Rev. Stat. 396.568 states that all credits earned by a student while enrolled at a community college within the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) must automatically transfer to a baccalaureate program. Amended in 2005, the law further states that any student who completes an A.A. degree in the NSHE shall be deemed to have completed the course of study required of a sophomore and will be accepted as junior at the receiving four-year institution. NSHE policy also allows for all baccalaureate level courses to be transferable between institutions, and states that a student who receives an associate transferable degree has met all lower-division general education requirements. NSHE created an Articulation Board in 1974 to review and evaluate articulation in the state and formulate new policies as necessary. The board reports to the chancellor and facilitates communication and collaboration among faculty members, and committees comprised of institutional representatives from all sectors of public higher education. All identical baccalaureate level courses within NSHE institutions must have common numbers to ensure smooth transfer for students. (Last Updated 2011)

New Hampshire

The legislature created the Community College System of New Hampshire (CCSNH) in 1999 and directed participating institutions to develop transfer and articulation agreements in partnership with the University System of New Hampshire (USNH). In 2008 a statewide admissions initiative called the New Hampshire Transfer Connections Program was established to create a seamless pathway to a four-year degree for New Hampshire students. Students who begin their collegiate study at a CCSNH institution are guaranteed baccalaureate admission to any USNH institution, provided certain performance measures are met. CCSNH students receive individualized transfer counseling and advising to help them meet requirements at the individual four-year institutions in the state. Students and transfer advisors are also assisted by an online transfer credit database that illustrates how CCSNH courses fit into USNH baccalaureate graduation requirements (i.e., for major, general education, and any other requirement at each institution). (Last Updated 2011)

New Jersey

New Jersey has taken several steps to create a seamless system of articulation and transfer in the state. The New Jersey Presidents' Council (NJPC), a statutory body made up of the presidents of public and private institutions of higher education, is directed to encourage the formation of alliances among institutions, including creating articulation and transfer agreements. A comprehensive statewide transfer and articulation agreement created by N.J. Rev. Stat. 18A:3B-14, passed in 2007, provides for the seamless transfer of completed A.A. and A.S. credits to a baccalaureate degree program. Under the law, public institutions in the state must work with the New Jersey Commission on Higher Education (NJCHE) and the NJPC to establish these transfer policies. The NJPC also maintains the web-based NJ Transfer initiative (, which provides information to students about transfer between two- and four-year colleges and universities in the state. The NJCHE maintains their own website featuring information about the articulation agreement and materials that promote successful transfer in the state. (Last Updated 2011)

New Mexico

In 1995, the New Mexico Legislature passed the Post-Secondary Education Articulation Act, which established common core courses and numbering and transfer modules to facilitate articulation between institutions. According to the law, if a student completes a 35 credit general education core module, the receiving institution must accept those credits, provided the student has maintained a "C" average. The law also allows for the acceptance of dual credit courses taken by a secondary student towards lower-division general degree requirements at a postsecondary institution. The Commission on Higher Education is required to make an annual report to the legislative finance committee, the education study committee, and the governor regarding the status of articulation programs and the transfer of students between institutions. (Last Updated 2011)

New York

All sectors of education - K-12, community colleges and baccalaureate institutions - are coordinated by the New York State Education Department, which is governed by the New York Board of Regents. Regents policy encourages collaborative efforts among the Department, colleges, and school districts to provide the information and assistance K-12 pupils and their families need in order to prepare for success in future college study. The State University of New York (SUNY) and the City University of New York (CUNY) systems govern and set policies for their respective systems of two- and four-year colleges and universities. In 2003 the General Assembly passed legislation requiring the establishment of uniform standards for the transferability and acceptance of course credits among the various units of CUNY and SUNY. At the institutional level, the SUNY system has addressed issues related to articulation and transfer since 1980 when its Board of Trustees stipulated that New York residents who graduated with an A.A. or an A.S. degree from a SUNY community college were guaranteed admission to a SUNY four-year institution. In 1987, the Board adopted another resolution which stated that A.A. and A.S. graduates be granted full credit transfer for general education courses taken and not be required to repeat successfully completed courses with similar curricular content at a receiving institution. In 1998, based on recommendations contained in a report issued by the SUNY faculty and the Joint Task Force on General Education, the Trustees adopted a minimum transfer curriculum of 30 credit hours distributed across knowledge and skill areas, including mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, American history, Western civilization, non-Western civilizations, humanities, the arts, foreign language, and basic communication. (Last Updated 2011)

North Carolina

Legislation passed in 1995, N.C. Gen. Stat. 115D-4.1, created a statewide articulation plan with the goal of expanding access to higher education for all students through uniform policies for the transfer of credit from community colleges to University of North Carolina System (UNCS) institutions. The State Board of Community Colleges - which governs the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) - was directed to implement a common course numbering system with common course descriptions for all community college programs. The legislation also established a common education transfer core curriculum that applies to all associate degree programs in the state's public institutions. Community college transfer students who have completed the core curriculum must still compete for admission to a four-year college and for acceptance into a major, but they are not required to complete work beyond that required of all continuing students. Legislation passed in 2003 encourages community colleges in the state to promote early entry of high-achieving students into four-year college programs and to ensure there are opportunities at public institutions for academically talented high school students to get an early start on college coursework. The same legislation further encourages the establishment of innovative high school programs to be developed cooperatively by secondary schools and community colleges to reduce the high school dropout rate, increase secondary and college degree completion rates, and reduce the need for remediation. In order to comply with state law, the UNCS and the NCCCS created the Comprehensive Articulation Agreement (CAA). The agreement, which was last modified in 2008, applies to all NCCCS transfer students who complete the 44 semester hour general education core courses, or who obtain their associate in arts or associate in science degree prior to transferring to a UNCS institution. (Last Updated 2011)

North Dakota

The North Dakota State Board of Education (SBHE) developed a common course numbering system in 2001 to better facilitate transfer between institutions. Furthermore, ND Century Code 15.1-25-01, passed in 1996, allows any North Dakota secondary student enrolled in grade 11 or 12 to receive high school and postsecondary credit for the successful completion of an academic course offered by an accredited postsecondary institution. A General Education Requirements Transfer Agreement (GERTA) exists between the North Dakota University System (NDUS) and Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU). Students who have completed an A.A. degree or who have completed their general education requirements at another NDUS or MnSCU institution will be deemed to have completed the general education requirements at all other postsecondary institutions participating in the agreement. A transfer guide - commonly referred to as "The Gold and Silver Guide" - provides an overview of GERTA and describes the general education requirements for each institution. (Last Updated 2011)


In 1989, legislation mandated that the Ohio Board of Regents (OBOR) improve the ease of transfer of credit between all public two- and four-year campuses. In response, the OBOR established an Articulation and Transfer Advisory Council (ATAC) that developed a framework to address issues of articulation and transfer, including the development of a module of general education courses that guaranteed transfer between institutions. In 2005, the legislature passed the Universal Course Equivalency Classification System for State Institutions of Higher Education which required the OBOR to establish policies and procedures applicable to all state institutions of higher education in an effort to ensure that students can transfer coursework and degrees from one state institution to another without duplication of courses. Ohio residents who complete an associate's degrees as part of an approved transfer module shall be admitted to a state institution of higher education, provided their grade point average is at least 2.0 for all previous college-level courses. Furthermore, students who are not enrolled in A.A. or A.S. degree programs but who have earned 60 semester hours or more of credit toward a baccalaureate degree with a grade point average of at least a 2.0 will be eligible for preferential consideration for admission as transfer students. The state also publishes a Transfer Assurance Guide to eliminate confusion about what courses are eligible for transfer. (Last Updated 2011)


The Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education developed an on-line Course Equivalency Project (CEP) in 1998 that provides course equivalency information to facilitate student transfer within the state system of higher education. Its database contains faculty-generated course equivalency information for over 8,000 courses organized by discipline. Lower division coursework cannot substitute for upper-division credit hour requirements, and a student must still complete the full amount of upper-level semester hours required for a baccalaureate degree. However, the content is transferable and a student need not repeat content or learning competencies acquired in an equivalent lower-division course. The equivalencies developed by faculty are approved by their institutional chief academic officers, then by the State Regents who also publicize the newly approved equivalencies on the CEP website. Legislation passed in 2003 also directs the Regents to work with institutional faculty and administrators to ensure that students move smoothly from one level of education to another. (Last Updated 2011)


In Oregon, institution-to-institution articulation and transfer agreements are fairly common. Legislation passed in 1987 called for cooperation between the university system and community colleges in overcoming obstacles to transfer and the development of a set of general requirements for transfer students seeking admission to university system institutions. As a result a block-transfer degree, the Associate of Arts/Oregon Transfer degree (A.A.O.T.), allows students to meet the lower-division general education requirements of Oregon University System (OUS) institutions. A second statewide block-transfer degree was added in 2003, the Associate of Science/Oregon Transfer degree in Business (A.S.O.T.B.). Legislation passed in 1977 required the Joint Boards of Education (JBAC), comprised of the Oregon State Board of Education and the Oregon State Board of Higher Education, to meet annually to develop agreements in areas of education policy which are of mutual interest to the two boards and to the populations served by them. This law was revised in 2005 and now requires community colleges and institutions in the OUS to work together towards the creation of a statewide articulation and transfer system. (Last Updated 2011)


In 1999, the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PSSHE) adopted the Academic Passport and Student Transfer Policy to facilitate seamless transfer between the community colleges and the public universities as well as intra-system transfers. Students who earn the A.A. or A.S. degree in a transfer or college parallel program from a community college earn an Academic Passport that provides entry into any System university and allows the transfer of up to 45 credits to meet lower-division university general education requirements. Legislation passed in 2006 addresses transfers of credits between institutions of higher education; it also requires each public institution to develop course equivalencies and establish and maintain records and data detailing the credits transferred to and received from other public institutions. In accordance with the legislation, the Pennsylvania Department of Education established the statewide Transfer and Articulation Oversight Committee (TAOC). The goal of the TAOC is to determine equivalent courses for at least 30 hours of general education courses, develop an assessment plan, review institutional data reports, and recommend to the PDE actions to be taken by the committee to enable the transfer of credits among public institutions of higher education. (Last Updated 2011)

Rhode Island

The Rhode Island Board of Governors for Higher Education (RIBGHE) in its Policy for Articulation and Transfer between Public Institutions of Higher Education states that the admission of a transfer student will be determined by the receiving institution following an assessment of academic performance and standing as well as eligibility for entrance to a specific program. According to the policy, last updated in 1998, students holding A.A. or A.S. degrees oriented toward the baccalaureate degree with a grade point average of 2.4 or higher from the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) are assured admission to Rhode Island College (RIC) and the University of Rhode Island (URI). Students who complete the 20 credit general education core requirement at the CCRI must take additional courses at the receiving institutions to satisfy their 32-43 credit core requirements. In 2003, the RIBGHE modified its statewide policy by adopting a Joint Admissions Agreement (JAA) which is designed to encourage the transfer of CCRI students to complete their baccalaureate degree at URI or RIC. Students accepted into this program may qualify, dependent on GPA, for tuition benefits at the four-year institution and receive pre-transfer counseling at both the CCRI and the destination institution. The Transfer Guide for Students includes a listing of equivalencies for general education, as well as for courses, and bilateral articulation agreements, established between the CCRI and one of the four-year public institutions for individual academic degree majors. The Transfer Guide is housed on the RI Transfer page of the RIBGHE's website, along with information on the JAA, and other resources. The Procedure for Strengthening the Articulation/Transfer Component of the Review Process for New Programs ( was added to the Regulations Governing Academic Changes in Rhode Island Public Institutions of Higher Education ( to ensure that interinstitutional articulation and transfer matters are considered from the very beginning of the new program development process. The Interinstitutional Student Exchange policy (,last modified in 2006, allows full-time students matriculated at one public institution of higher education to take up to seven credits per semester at another public institution without payment of additional tuition. (Last Updated 2011)

South Carolina

South Carolina's Statewide Agreement on Transfer and Articulation was developed in 1995 after passage of legislation that directed the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (SCCHE) to adopt procedures to facilitate the transfer of student credits from public two- to four-year institutions in the state. The agreement was developed by a Transfer Articulation Policy Committee, composed of chief academic officers of four-year institutions and the associate director for instruction of the state board for the technical colleges, and was last revised in 2002. In cases where an institution does not have synonymous courses to ones included in the agreement, it will identify comparable courses or course categories for acceptance of general education courses on the statewide list. The agreement also requires all four-year public institutions in the state to issue a transfer guide each year, explaining its admissions policies for students, as well as any additional requirements for transfer. Another section of the agreement pertains to Transfer Blocks in broad disciplinary clusters. Credits completed in these clusters at two-year public institutions in South Carolina will be accepted toward meeting baccalaureate degree requirements at all four-year public institutions and the student will automatically be granted junior status if he or she completes an associate's degree. While the SCCHE developed a common course numbering system, only two-year institutions in the state adopted the system. (Last Updated 2011)

South Dakota

S.D. Codified Laws Ann. 13-53B-1 requires that all general education course credits fulfilling graduation requirements in accredited institutions shall be transferable between Regents universities and the technical institutes governed by the Board of Education. Technical institutes and universities must have articulation agreements in place to allow the transfer of up to 64 hours in the General Studies Baccalaureate programs. The Associate of Applied Science and the Associate of Science degrees are not considered transfer degrees unless specifically articulated with a baccalaureate program. Each student enrolled in an Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degree program at any South Dakota public institution must take a proficiency examination after the completion of 32 passed credit hours or prior to graduation to continue registering at the university. South Dakota Board of Regents Policy similarly states that academic courses can be transferred and meet graduation requirements if the courses parallel the requirements for a specific degree program or if the courses meet electives required for the degree. (Last Updated 2011)


Tenn. Code Ann. 49-7-202 was revised in 2000 and calls for an integrated system of postsecondary education and directs the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (THEC) to promote the transferability of credits and provide easy access to information among institutions regarding articulation and transfer. Revision of the same law in 2008 similarly directed the THEC to provide clear and effective information and directions that specify curricular paths to a baccalaureate degree and address any deficiencies in the articulation courses between the community college system and the universities. The THEC has established a 41-semester hour general education core, common to universities and university parallel programs in the community colleges. Technical colleges in the state are also authorized to develop, with receptive high schools, 2+2 Tech-Prep/associate degree programs that result in a planned four-year course of study culminating in an associate's degree. (Last Updated 2011)


In the late 1980s, the Texas legislature adopted the Texas Charter for Public Higher Education which required the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to publish information on transferable courses and to develop policies on the transfer of lower-division academic courses between public higher education institutions. In 1987, the legislature passed a law establishing a core curriculum in the state. Last updated in 1997, the legislation directs the THECB to develop a fully transferable core curriculum of no fewer than 42 semester credit hours in the liberal arts, humanities, sciences, and political, social, and cultural history. With the assistance of the Core Curriculum Advisory Committee, comprised of faculty and administrative staff from two- and four-year institutions, the THECB developed and approved a new core curricular framework that was implemented statewide in September of 1999. Successfully completed blocks of the core curriculum must be allowed to substitute for similar area requirements at the receiving institution. In addition to the core curriculum, a "field of study curriculum" (FOSC) was implemented by the THECB the same year. The FOSC is a set of courses that satisfy lower-division requirements for a baccalaureate degree in specific academic areas. Devised by discipline-based faculty and administrators, the courses transfer as a block and substitute for the lower-division requirements in that major at the receiving institution. (Last Updated 2011)


The Utah State Board of Regents (USBR) originally developed the Admissions, Access, and Articulation policy in 1982, and later revised it in 1984 and 1992. The policy requires Utah System of Higher Education (USHE) institutions to provide potential transfer students with grade point average standards and course information to better help them with academic planning. The policy further encourages students to complete an A.A. or A.S. degree prior to transferring to a university, since all general education requirements will have already been met upon acceptance to a four-year institution. Another USBR policy adopted in 2005 relates to transfer through its establishment of common course numbering and common lower-division pre-major requirements. The same policy also states that students who earn an A.A. or A.S. degree at any USHE institution will meet the general education requirements of any other USHE institution, thereby allowing them to transfer with upper-division status. Legislation passed in 2004 also addresses common course numbering, credit by examination, transferability of credits and requires the USBR to facilitate articulation and transfer in the state by avoiding unnecessary duplication of courses and allowing students to "proceed toward their educational objectives as rapidly as their circumstances permit." (Last Updated 2011)


There are no state-level statutes or policies that formerly govern articulation and transfer between public postsecondary institutions in Vermont. The University of Vermont (UVM) has its own system-level transfer policies and makes an online transfer guide available to current undergraduate students. Concerning articulation agreements, the UVM's website ( instructs individual students transferring from the Community College of Vermont (CCV) to meet with a CCV advisor early in their college career to develop an Articulation Plan or degree pathway. The Vermont State College System (VSC) has also created a "shared transcript" designed to facilitate a seamless education for students. Credits earned at the CCV automatically transfer into another VSC degree program and count toward similar requirements at the other VSC schools. (Last Updated 2011)


Legislation directs the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) to develop a one-year uniform certificate of general studies to be offered at each community college. The certificate program ensures that a community college student completing the requirements of the program may transfer all credits to a public four-year institution. SCHEV has a long-standing State Policy on College Transfer that aims to improve collaboration among institutions and increase efficiency in the state's transfer process. The policy states that students who complete a transfer-degree program at a community college in Virginia should be assured transfer to a public four-year institution, with preference given to students who have completed a transfer degree over those who have not. Furthermore, students who have earned an associate's degree based upon a baccalaureate-oriented sequence of courses should be considered to have met lower-division general education requirements of the receiving institution. Admission to a four-year institution does not guarantee admission to a particular academic program. The policy also states that the requirements for admission to academic programs should be the same for native and transfer students. SCHEV maintains a Transfer Tool webpage ( that provides general education course equivalencies. Information related to articulation, transfer, dual enrollment, and guaranteed admissions agreements can be found at the online Virginia Community College Wizard Education Tool ( (Last Updated 2011)


Legislation originally passed in 1983 directed the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to adopt statewide transfer and articulation policies that ensure efficient transfer of credits and courses across public two and four-year institutions of higher education. This legislation was updated in 2004 to require a progress report which would show "measurable improvement" in transfer efficiency. The HECB established the Direct Transfer Agreement, the Associate Degree Agreement, and the Major Related Programs in conjunction with the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) and state four-year institutions. The Direct Transfer Agreement guarantees Washington residents admission to a participating four-year institution if they transfer directly from community college, have completed core requirements, and have maintained a specified grade point average in college transfer courses. The Associate Degree Agreement specifies common requirements for the degree and guarantees that students completing the A.A. degree have satisfied general education requirements at participating baccalaureate institutions. College-level courses taken at the community college are accepted at the same value as at the receiving institution. Major Related Programs assists transfer students in certain majors to carefully select their elective and general education courses to ensure they will be eligible to apply for that specific major in their junior year. Completion of a Major Related Program does not guarantee admission to certain majors that are popular and have more qualified applicants than spots in the program. (Last Updated 2011)

Washington D.C.

In 2000, the State Education Office (SEO) of the District of Columbia was established to assume the coordination responsibilities typically assumed by a state level education agency. The SEO works with the District of Columbia. Public Schools and publicly funded charter schools and operates the Office of Postsecondary Education Research and Assistance for the District of Columbia. District of Columbia Code establishes a core curriculum, content standards and requires regular assessment of students in the District of Columbia Public Schools. Promotion Gates require that students be assessed and be able to demonstrate appropriate skill levels in math, reading and writing before moving between grades 1-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12. The federally funded Tuition Assistance Grant (TAG) program enacted in 2000 allows District of Columbia undergraduates the opportunity to attend colleges and universities nationwide and only pay in-state tuition rates. (Prepared by Katherine Boswell, FY 2003)

West Virginia

Transfer policies originally put in place by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission (WVHEPC) and later adopted by the West Virginia Council for Community and Technical College Education (WVCCTCE) state that undergraduate credits earned at a public postsecondary institution are transferable to another institution in the state. Further, students with an associate's degree transferring to a four-year institution will generally have junior standing and be able graduate with the same number of credit hours as non-transfer students at the same school. Institutions are also encouraged to maintain articulation agreements with other public West Virginia institutions. The Core Coursework Transfer Agreement, which was is updated annually by a committee appointed by the WVHEPC and the WVCCTCE, allows a student to transfer a minimum of 35 hours of undergraduate general education credits to fulfill core requirements at a receiving institution. All public institutions in the state are required to publish the agreement and to list general studies courses in a transfer guide that is widely available to all students. (Last Updated 2011)


While there is no statewide policy concerning articulation and transfer, the University of Wisconsin System (UWS) has a Transfer Policy that applies to the 15 UWS institutions (26 campuses) and specifically addresses transfer between the UW System and the 47 campuses of the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS). The UW System Transfer Policy endorses a student-centered transfer process which fosters educational attainment, accommodates student mobility, and provides equitable treatment of transfer and continuing students. The policy sets forth the basic assumptions that have become national standards for transfer of credit among institutions as expressed in the Joint Statement on the Transfer and Award of Credit developed by the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), the American Council on Education (ACE), and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). The UWS also maintains a Transfer Information System website (, in cooperation with WTCS, for the purpose of helping students understand their options and obtain current and accurate information about course equivalencies within and between the systems as well as transfer guides and articulation agreements between academic programs. The TIS website also offers Transfer Plans which provides students and advisors with an unofficial evaluation of how transfer courses will apply towards the requirements of a specific major or program. (Last Updated 2011)


Wyoming community colleges and the University of Wyoming (UW) have adopted a common course numbering system, known as the Wyoming Course Identification System (WCIS), and community college students can request joint admissions so they are accepted at the university at the same time they are accepted by their local community college, easing the transition between sectors. A WCIS Procedural Manual outlines the cooperative efforts created by the Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC), individual Wyoming community colleges, and UW. According to Wyo. Stat. 21-18-307, any student who graduates from a high school in the state must be admitted to a community college in Wyoming, without further qualifying examination. (Last Updated 2011)